Final Statement

Introduction

Throughout this blog the differences  between wireless and wired technologies were discussed. Most of the time such a discussion came down to an enumeration of the advantages and the disadvantages related to each technology. What makes a technology better than another one?

Statement

I believe that, rather than summing up all the advantages and disadvantages, asking yourself if a particular technology will improve life quality is a far better criterion. Even when a technology introduces numerous advantages and only one disadvantage an improvement of life quality is not guaranteed. Also, adopting this question as a decision criterion might help to improve an existing technology. I will try to make this clear by using some examples from the blog.

Wireless charging of vehicles was the first technology that was mentioned on this blog. Besides an improvement of convenience, also safety is improved. But, in times where energy is anything but cheap, energy efficiency is of major importance. This single disadvantage causes this technology to be inferior to regular recharging.

Everyone is quite sure about the convenience introduced by wireless implants,  but not everyone is confident when reliability is discussed. Since for this example reliability has more leverage than convenience when it comes down to life quality, one has to conclude this technology is not optimal yet. Therefore some suggestions were made which should enable this technology to really improve life quality. One example was the idea of harvesting energy from vibrations.

Reliability is of course not always the most decisive criterion. A lot of debate went on about the privacy issues related to wireless communication. When people use their laptops or smart phones convenience seems to be way more important than possible privacy risks (which are in fact part of the ‘reliability’ of a technology). The same holds for possible health risks of wireless communication. Therefore we see technologies like Wi-Fi as an improvement of life quality irrespective of the possible risks.

Of course life quality is subject to human perception. In my article ‘The Last Barrier’ I already said that people who use a desktop do not care whether the electrical power is coming through a cable or through the air, but people using a laptop can get seriously frustrated by one remaining cable.

PoE, PLC and home plug are somewhat different in this perspective. I already said it does not look like a long term solution to me and there is also the side issue of the absence of redundance. But, as a technology itself, it is a perfect example of an improvement of life quality. Because redundance might not be very important for some household applications, both technologies only introduce advantages and therefore directly increase life quality.

eCoupled, the international wireless charging standard, is also a perfect example of an improvement of life quality. Making an existing technology useable on world wide scale by creating a standard only brings advantages and therefore improves life quality.

The researchers working for enocean kept the idea of life quality very well in mind when developing their technology. Self-powered sensors make cumbersome battery replacements no longer necessary and no wires are needed. They were also able to minimize the only harmful aspect namely the (necessary) data transfer.

Space based solar power looks like a very unattractive technology in my opinion. Except for the absence of nuclear or other types of waste it seems like it would only cause a decrease in life quality. First, there is the possible danger of hazardous radiation. Second, energy would become extremely expensive by implementing this technology. At last, it might put more pressure on the environment than expected. The fabrication of solar panels is quite damaging to the environment and transportation and reparation of these panels each time requires a space flight which is a source of noxious gasses.

Conclusion

Wireless or not, each technology has its advantages and disadvantages. Wireless technologies often tend to increase convenience and decrease ‘safety’. Wired technologies are mostly used whenever reliability is of major importance. When an idea for some kind of new technology arises and the impact on the user can accurately be estimated the question ‘Can this technology improve life quality?’ should be the go/no go criterion. Knowing the advantages and disadvantages in advance should enable someone to answer this question. This go/no go criterion is very different from a regular enumeration because in fact an intelligent weight factor is ascribed to each of the advantages and disadvantages.

Final Statement

Introduction
In the scope of our master’s thesis, we were asked to blog about a social issue related to our thesis subject. As a team of four master students, we chose to talk about wireless technology and its influence on life quality in the broad sense, so apart from comfort, we looked at how health, safety and environment are affected in both the near and distant future. What follows is a critical look at the increasing emergence of wireless communication systems.

Wireless communication is already common and is still gaining momentum as new uses are constantly being identified. Current uses are as diverse as cellular (smart)phones, Wi-Fi, GPS, security systems, health care, computer interface devices (e.g. Bluetooth), wireless sensor networks and many more.

A wireless communication network has numerous advantages, not least the mobility of the devices within the network. It is a simple matter to relocate a communicating device, and no additional cost of rewiring and excessive downtime is associated with such a move. It is also a simple matter to add in a communication device to the network or remove one from the network without any disruption to the remainder of the system. Other than the initial outlay on setting up a wireless network, the cost of running and maintaining it is minimal. These factors show the appeal of wireless technology for the home and office environment.

Despite these advantages, one has to take several matters into account before deciding in favor of a wireless alternative over a wired one:

1. The limited spectrum available for wireless communication;
2. The effect of wireless communication on health;
3. The security of the transferred information in critical applications.

This paper discusses these matters and draws a general conclusion regarding the choice for wireless.
The Limited Wireless Spectrum
The wireless spectrum is the part of the electromagnetic spectrum corresponding to radio frequencies – that is, frequencies lower than around 300 GHz. Above 300 GHz, the absorption of electromagnetic radiation by Earth’s atmosphere is so great that the atmosphere is effectively impenetrable, so these frequencies are useless for communication.

This means that only a limited spectrum range is available, so to prevent different wireless communication systems from interfering with each other, the available spectrum is divided into different frequency bands for different applications. As more and more wireless devices are created, the available frequency bands are running out. Also, bandwidth decreases when more devices using the same wireless protocol (and therefore the same band) are added to the same environment. In contrast, more and more bandwidth is inquired from devices like smartphones and notebooks.

The wireless industry has been creating solutions like spread spectrum communication and software-defined radios, exploiting additional bands to better utilize and share bandwidth among multiple channels. Although this helps, it is inevitable: If we continue to add wireless devices and applications, we will one day run out of available spectrum.
The Effect on Health
The rapid increase in the use of wireless communication devices in recent years has been accompanied by a significant amount of research into potential health effects from high exposure to radiofrequency (RF) energy emitted by these devices.

In January 2008, the National Research Council (NRC), an arm of the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering, issued a report saying that we simply don’t know enough about the potential health risks of long-term exposure to RF energy from cell phones themselves, cell towers, television towers, and other components of our wireless communication system. The scientists who prepared the report emphasized, in particular, the unknown risks to the health of children, pregnant women, and fetuses as well as of workers whose jobs entail high exposure to RF energy.

Because so much wireless technology is new and evolving, we don’t have data on the consequences of 10, 20 or 30 years worth of exposure to the RF energy emitted. The report called for long-term safety studies on all wireless devices including cell phones, computers, and cell phone towers.
Wireless Security Issues
There were relatively few dangers when wireless technology was first introduced. Hackers had not yet had time to adapt the new technology and wireless networks were not commonly found in the home and office environment. Today, however, there are a great number of security risks associated with wireless protocols and encryption methods combined with the carelessness and ignorance that exists at the user and corporate IT level. Also, hacking methods have become much more sophisticated and innovative and at the same time much easier and more accessible with easy-to-use Windows or Linux-based tools being made available on the web at no charge.

Some organizations disallow wireless networks and therefore believe they don’t need to address wireless security issues. These organizations overlook the fact that wireless security issues can still arise when a wireless laptop is plugged into the corporate network. A hacker could sit out in the parking lot and gather info from it through laptops and/or other devices as handhelds, or even break in through this wireless card-equipped laptop and gain access to the wired network.

Wireless security also compromises location-based services, which are applications that use information about where a communication device is located. Laws require that mobile telephones are able to provide location data with a fairly detailed accuracy for emergency purposes. Such information also enables location-based services in mobile commerce, which presents a major new market for the telecommunications industry. Unlike other information in cyberspace, location information has the potential to allow an adversary to physically locate a person, and therefore most wireless subscribers have legitimate concerns about their personal safety if such information should fall into the wrong hands.
Conclusion
Wireless technology is certainly able to improve our life quality. Especially since wireless communication systems are becoming cheaper, easier to implement and smaller every day, so more and more devices can profit from it. Wireless solutions can be time saving, easier to use, and more mobile. Also, wireless conditioning monitoring reveals different applications not even realizable through a wired network. Still, the issues mentioned in this paper need to be taken into account every time a new wireless application is considered.

Only if we make responsible choices in replacing wired technology by its wireless alternative, we will be able to continue to improve our life quality, in the near as well as distant future. Especially high bandwidth technology, like digital television, should remain wired to limit RF radiation and spectrum fill-up. Also, critical communication technology, like medical devices, should remain wired where possible, or otherwise extensively secured. Finally, more research needs to be conducted about the long-term health effects of different levels and frequencies of RF exposure.

Final Statement: Niels Vanhelmont

Wireless technologies will improve our life quality. That is the statement we like to prove. To do this we investigated existing and future wireless technologies in the domain of medicine, transport of energy and communication.

Improvements in medicine

With a smartphone, it is nowadays already possible to monitor your temperature, blood pressure, your glucose level if you are a diabetic, the amount of calories you are consuming, your heart rhythm, oxygen and so on. These vital functions can also be monitored with wireless sensor networks for in-home healthcare. At home, the wireless implants of a human body can communicate with this network and transfer their vital data, which can be used to decide the health status of the body.

In this way, (chronic) diseases can be followed up better and more regularly. As a consequence, you do not need doctors and nurses anymore to check up on you if it is not really necessary.

People with hearing problems will also enjoy improvements of their life quality. Hearing aids such as the Resound Alera, have been designed to capture wireless signals, transmitted by sound producing devices, like television, radio, cell phones,… . The hearing aids could probably also be used by people without a hearing distortion.  People can manipulate the volume so that the sound reaching their ears is not too loud to be healthy. An application of this principle is realized in silent discos, where people are singing and dancing on music coming from a headphone, without the presence of external speakers.

Improvements in transport of energy

Transport of electrical energy happens nowadays mostly using wires, but this can also be done wireless, including all its advantages and making life a little more comfortable in some situations. The following technologies exist or are being researched and should be improved:

A system to wirelessly charge a car. In order to transfer the power to the vehicles battery, it should be close enough to the charging unit. But the cost of not plugging in a cable and using the wireless transportation, is 20% energy loss. This system would be better applicable if it were to be improved such that it can be used while driving, thereby removing the need for a battery.

Resonant magnetic coupling. It has a high efficiency for short and medium distances, acceptable amounts of radiation, limited interaction by non-tuned objects,…

A wireless charging technology for electronic devices like eCoupled.  It is a universal standard with an intelligent control system that communicates with devices to obtain their power needs. Only the power needed to allow the device to operate safely and efficiently will be provided incorporating several factors like battery age for example. This technology can be used at home (from cell phone to TV), on the road (mp3-player, laptop,…), in the air, …, almost everywhere. It eliminates the need for using different adaptors for all the electronic devices.  It can also transfer data, so even data cables can be left at home.

A technology for wirelessly powering electronic devices, without the need of a battery. Enocean obtains power from ambient energy sources like temperature differences or surrounding vibrations. Their sensors do not require batteries, cables or even wireless power supplies, which creates a cleaner environment.

A technology for transmitting power wirelessly over large distances. An example of this category can be space based solar power, that the company Space Energy is doing research for.  In this way, solar energy is captured in space using satellites with photovoltaic panels. That energy is transmitted wirelessly to a ground station on Earth, which is connected with the existing power grid. Because of their constant presence in sunlight and the absence of an atmosphere, the efficiency of the solar satellites is much higher than with capturing sunlight on Earth. The capturing is independent of weather conditions, seasons and the position of the sun.

Improvements in communication

The existence of mobile devices has introduced several mobile services, like mobile communication, mobile enterprise, mobile entertainment, location based services, mobile healthcare, mobile commerce, mobile and remote education, … Those services make us more efficient in collaborating and communicating and hence, improve the quality of our lives.

Wireless sensor networks will play an important role in the evolution of industrial automation. This will improve quality, productivity and safety.

Considerations

In wireless medical monitoring implants, the challenge lies in the improvement of the wireless monitoring sensors  rather than in the wireless transmission of data.  The devices should be small, reliable and safe to use,  and they should consume little energy. The power supply for these devices can be a battery which is charged by wireless power transfer or by surrounding vibrations due to body movement. A battery management system should be included, though, to prevent the battery from running empty when no charging sources are present.

People like to hear and especially feel the low frequencies in music when dancing. The use of a headset in applications like a silent disco, decreases the quality of the music beats. Also, other (disturbing) noise in the room will make this application less comfortable to use.

Technologies like eCoupled should only be used for powering electronic devices that consume a few Watts or have to be plugged in and out all the time, and not for fixed high power devices like a television or dishwasher. A wire will always be more efficient. Because these devices remain on the same place, there is no advantage in using wireless power transport.

The development and research of space based solar power and the wireless transmission of power over such large distance, is very expensive. There is also no consensus yet over the achievable efficiency of the transmission, but as long as the delivered power is comparable to that of the current power plants (which is the case according to Space Energy), this is not a problem. The technology also does not deliver the energy wirelessly to the end user, only the transmission from space to Earth happens wirelessly.

It is not yet proven whether radiation due to wireless communication technologies (like for example Wi-Fi) is harmful for human beings or not. The frequencies at which those devices are transmitting are close to the frequency used in microwave ovens, however, which is the resonant frequency of water, and a microwave oven is designed to heat water molecules. Thus in fact, when one is using his mobile phone, he is heating his brain. Luckily the transmitted power of a cell phone is not that high, so if one does not exaggerate in using the device next to his head, the effects are not that influential.

When using wireless communication services, people should be aware of the fact that their privacy is not guaranteed. Big organizations gather data about the locations you visit and the wireless networks you encounter, when you are using your smartphone. Some even store e-mails and passwords obtained from monitoring wireless networks. So for important applications like online banking, it is better to use a secure wired connection.

The presence of wireless technologies introduces the possibility to continue your work anytime at any place. In this way, the boundary between work and leisure time is fading away and life will become more stressful. Some say that this is a phenomenon of modern times and not necessary due to the existence of mobile devices, but in my opinion, the mobile devices just are the cause of this phenomenon.

Sensor networks are mostly build using wireless technologies, but in some cases also power line networks can be used for this purpose  (like in the in-home healthcare technology for example). Power line networks do not require the use of wires not already present. So for fixed sensors in a building, which require the presence of a power supply anyway, the power lines are a good alternative for the wireless medium.

Power line networks can also be used for broadband communication as an alternative for Wi-Fi. It is more secure than wireless transmission, because a hacker would need physical access to your home electrical network to sniff for private information (if a filter is installed on the electrical providers connection). Hacking a network using Wi-Fi can be done from within a car in front of your home.

If not using signal attenuating things like distributing plugs, power line communication is even faster than the wireless counterpart. But this is true for all network technologies using wires. If high data rates are needed, a wired connection will always be the best option.

Conclusion

Our lives have already been positively influenced by using wireless technologies. They make us more efficient in communicating and collaborating. Diseases and the health of the human body can be more efficiently monitored with smartphones and in-body and in-home sensor networks. Hearing problems can be solved and prevented by using wireless hearing aids. Wireless power transport is also a very promising domain, with technologies for charging and or real time powering sensors and other devices. Thus it can be concluded that wireless technologies will indeed improve our life quality.

There are however a few points to consider when using wireless technologies. First, the wireless transmission of both power and data will never be as efficient as their wired counterparts. Also privacy and security are better when using wired networks. Second, the possibility exists that signals radiated by wireless transmission devices are not that healthy and third, life can be more stressful if the mobile office is taken home.

So wireless technologies will indeed improve our life quality, but they should be used with care.

Final Statement: Jeroen Boone

Abstract

This Final Statement written by Boone Jeroen is based on a Group T blog written by Boone Jeroen, Hendrickx Dries, Pannier Jan, Vanhelmont Niels. We wondered if wireless technologies are able to improve our quality of life or might diminish our quality of life.

In the blog I was able to distinguish four main application domains of wireless technologies which I will discuss in more detail.

  • Wireless Communication
  • Wireless power transfer
  • Wireless Medical applications
  • Wired alternatives

Wireless Communication

Mobile Networks, short range (e.g. WiFi) and long range (e.g. 3g) allow us to exchange data and messages when and where we want to. This obviously brings great advantages but some disadvantages as well.

Radiation from wireless devices might be dangerous for the public health. At the moment there is no proof that such radiation is harmful or not. Thus research should continue to investigate this and try to find out if the current radiation limits are adequate for public health. A guest lecturer at Groupt T has admitted that there is some proof that the radiation from cell phones, when making a long call heats up our brain. This might explain why Niels has headaches after calling for half an hour.

Being connected to a wireless network all the time means that your whereabouts can be monitored all the time. At the moment only big organizations have access to this data, but for how long. What if the wrong persons get access to this data? They would be able to track or stalk you or deduct some delicate private matters. In my opinion to protect the privacy of the users they should always have a clear overview and control of the information they give to the network.

From a course at group T about wireless communication it appears that wireless networks are not always that save. Your wireless network might be hacked, giving hackers access to private information.

Wireless Power Transfer

Wireless power transfer is much less efficient than wired power transfer. Thus it probably won’t be used for devices with a great power consumption, the cost of the lost power is too large. In our blog I found no evidence that wireless power transfer efficiency will dramatically improve in the near future. Wireless power transfer will probably be used by devices with a low power transfer where the impact of the power consumption is rather low.

In the blog there is mentioning of wireless chargers being present in public places. Again for the near future I don’t think this will become reality. Who will pay for the installation and maintenance of these chargers? Consumers will have to pay for the power they consume, this will require a standard, a standard that will influence consumer devices and charger devices.

For the consumed power will have to be paid, this will require a standard to be present in the consumer devices and the chargers.

Thanks to the European Union cell phone manufacturers are adopting a universal charger. This will decrease the amount of waste that these chargers created. When you lose your charger you might not have to buy a new one, but just use one from another cell phone.

If wireless power transfer becomes widely adopted by the market, a universal standard will be needed as well. Not only to reduce waste, but to improve quality of life as well. One charger will be able to charge all of your small power consuming devices (probably not all at the same time) and you don’t have to worry about finding the right charger for the right device. eCoupled is trying to become the standard for wireless charging. eCoupled provides some wireless communication, that will allow a device to tell the charger how it has to be  charged (e.g. voltage, power, distance from the device, etc.). As wireless charging remains less efficient, this technology will not be used for static or high power consuming devices.

Wireless charging removes hazardous wires. Now the company enocean even removes the need of charging. Enocean has devices that use ambient energy like temperature differences or vibrations to power their sensors. This is an ideal technology for devices with a very low power consumption and devices that only sporadically have to send out a signal (which requires a burst of energy). It eliminates the need for wires and the replacement of batteries, batteries that get low after a time.

All the previous examples were transmissions for short ranges, but power transfer might be useful or even needed over larger distances where there are no wires possible (technically or economical perhaps even due to a war …).

One of those applications might be space based solar power. The basic idea is that a space solar cell can harness a lot more power than on earth. Thus this energy could be send to the earth where a ground station could receive it and send it to the normal power grid. When one thinks about the huge costs for sending a space shuttle into space, this might not be for the near future, but it might become reality in an era where there are a lot more space flights. If there are more space flights the marginal cost to send a spacecraft into space will become smaller thus making space based solar power economically more achievable.

Wireless Medical applications

In our blog we came across some wireless implants. The most important thing about implants is that they are reliable and not convenience. There are a few options for wireless implants. They can be wirelessly charged, but then they are only operational when being charged. They can be battery charged, but batteries lose their power after a while. At the moment researchers are working on a pacemaker that harvests its energy from vibrations (e.g. from human movement).
In the future it might be possible to combine these three solutions. This would be an implant with a battery that is charged by vibrations. When the implant is not charged enough by the vibrations wireless power transfer could be used to back up the power supply from the vibrations. The combination of the techniques could make implants last for a longer time without replacement.

The hearing aid ‘Resound Alera’ can receive wireless signals from media such as televisions, radio, etc. This ensures  that the sound quality reaching your ear is better. People with hearing problems will perceive no problems from reverberations any more. Hence they will be better able to understand the transmitted sounds. Other applications offer you the ability to listen to your cell phone hands free and in the future you could pick up messages in a public area that are meant for you without bothering other people.

Wireless sensor networks for in-home health care can be used to continuously monitor wireless sensors and implants on and in your body. It is still a research project but it might become reality in the future.

At home the sensors can be monitored constantly, which would provide more accurate data for doctors to make their medical analyses. I can form a backup memory for Alzheimer patients and a warning system for emergency services, when the patient is unable to warn them. There is the possibility to allow disabled patients to control home appliances using their in-home network without moving around.

There are some requirements to be filled in for this product to become adopted successfully. The network will have to be robust and reliable because people’s lives might depend on it! And yet people may never only rely on the system, if it fails it could have serious consequences. Further there is need for a good interface. If the interface is bad the users will use the interface incorrectly thus the data will be incorrect. The patients might not even use the network at all because it will be seen as a burden instead off an improvement of their quality of life. For the development of the interface consultation with the  users is vital. If a redesign of the interface is necessary a redesign of the rest of your network might be necessary, which might be very expensive.

Recording data, data privacy and security will become an important issue as well. Healthcare providers will own the sensors and network devices but the patients will own the data in them. Consequently authorization to the data should be clearly written down before the installation of the network. Think about doctors, family, etc. But during emergencies other people might require access to the information on the database. But every access to the data should be logged and this logs may never be deleted. The data itself should be read only, view only and may not be saved (some exceptions might exist). ‘Privacy-contaminated’ data should be filtered out, the information from the patients network may not leak to others (or other networks) and may only be saved on the patient’s sensors and database.

CONCLUSION

Wireless technologies are able to improve our quality of life. But we should be aware of the possible risks. It will become more difficult to guarantee people their privacy in the wireless future. People have to be aware and able to control, the amount of data, about themselves, they make available online. And when they are aware of what they make public they should also be aware of the possible impact that data might have on their lives.

Security of wireless connections is much more difficult than wired connections, effort should be done to improve this.

The influence of wireless technologies will become greater in the future, but I do not believe that wireless technologies will replace all wired technologies. Power transfer efficiency is much smaller for wireless technologies than for wired technologies. In a world where we want to reduce our power consumption, low power efficiency is intolerable for applications with a large power consumption.

A lot of people are very creative at using wired technologies to solve their problems, sometimes they can be an even better alternative than wireless technologies. Examples of those technologies are power over Ethernet and power line communication (e.g. Home Plug).

Data communication will be wireless and wired. In one of the posts there is a citation from Quigley who claims that wireless technologies will remain slower than wired technologies!

Space-based solar power

The company Space Energy is doing research for a renewable source of energy in space. The principle is as follows: Solar satellites orbiting the earth will capture sunlight and convert it to electrical energy using photovoltaic panels.because it happens in space, these panels will remain in sunlight 24 hours a day, providing a constant source of power. There also is no atmosphere, so the efficiency of the light capturing is much higher than on earth.

The next step is to transmit the energy to earth. This happens wirelessly by radio waves and the amount of power available after transmission is comparable to that of a traditional nuclear or coal-fired power plant. Space energy claims that the transmission waves are proven safe for humans and are comparable to the waves used for wireless communication and data transmission. On Earth, the waves will be captured by large grids, called rectennas and delivered locally or using existing power grids to consumers.

Other advantages over ground stations are: independency of weater conditions, seasons and the position of the sun.

This technology is not fully wireless, because a special facility is needed to capture the wireless power and deliver it to customers (so the power is not wirelessly delivered to the end user), but it is an example of a situation where wireless technologies can increase the productivity of non-wireless technologies (solar power captured on earth).

For those that are interested, there also is a YouTube video explaining the technology.

Wireless Technology in Industrial Automation

Since we almost have arrived at the endpoint of our blog, I would like to share with you this white paper about wireless technology in industry (automation). It is just the global content that counts, not the subject automation.

First of all an enumeration of different levels of wireless technologies is given. Examples are: RFID, WLAN, …

Improved quality, productivity & safety are cited as an argument for implementing wireless technologies. Improving these means improving life quality!

More specific, the importance of wireless sensor networks in industry is emphasized. With Jeroen’s post about ‘Wireless Sensor Networks for In-Home Healthcare’ in mind it should be clear that wireless sensors offer tremendous advantages for the near future!

Also the importance of wireless standards, whether for power or for data, is highlighted. Jan’s article about ‘eCoupled’ and my article about ‘The Last Barrier’ also show that solid standards might be(come) one of the major issues/needs concerning wireless technologies!

enocean – Green.Smart.Wireless

I have picked out this white paper because the researchers working for enocean were able to tackle some issues often used as a counterargument for wireless power.

Just like all other parties working on better wireless power/technologies, one of the main goals of the technologies enocean has developed, is the elimination of batteries. enocean uses ambient energy like temperature differences or vibrations to power their sensors.

Improving life quality does not only come down to making life easier but also requires those same technologies to be as safe or even safer than existing technologies! I believe that, from that point of view, enocean is a strong player concerning wireless technologies.

Some examples of enocean’s achievements that should make life easier & safer! :

  • In fact the sensors used by enocean provide themselves with sufficient energy, so no cables, batteries or wireless power sources are needed. That means ultimate freedom!
  • The absence of batteries also means no battery disposal what in turn gives rise to a cleaner environment.
  • By using extremely short transmission diagrams collision risk is reduced and transmitted data is kept safe.
  • Because of those very short transmission times, the power of the transmitted signal can be quite high without consuming lots of energy. Higher transmission power means greater bridgeable distances.
  • Also because of those short transmission times, radiation is limited to safe levels. This might be one of the strongest assets enocean’s technologies have to offer.

For more detailed info I refer to the white paper.

I hope this article has convinced those who think wireless technologies are nice to have but are by definition hazardous. Companies like enocean try to create a win-win situation and will improve quality of life through better wireless technologies.

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